Inicio Gramática intermedio Los verbos modales: must, have to, should, should have

Los verbos modales: must, have to, should, should have

(Modals: must, have to, should, should have)

Should

Se usa "should" para dar o pedir consejo o para dar opiniones en el presente:

Forma

Se usa "should" / "shouldn't" + el infinitivo del verbo principal (sin "to")

Ejemplo

I
You
He, She, It
We
They
should do more exercise.
get a new car.
shouldn't
(should not)
smoke.
spend so much money.

Should I
you
he / she / it
we
they
get more qualifications?
wear something different?

Should have

Se usa "should have" para dar su opinión o pedir su opinión en el presente en relación a algo que sucedió en el pasado:

Forma

Se usa "should" / "shouldn't have" + el participio pasado del verbo principal

Ejemplo

I
You
He / She / It
We
They
should have taken a taxi.
shouldn't have written that comment.

Should I
you
he / she / it
we
they
have worked overtime?

Práctica

Dar o pedir consejo usando el verbo entre paréntesis:

  • He the position. (accept)
     
  • You mobile phones in the classroom. (not allow)
     
  • we that we cheated? (admit)
     
  • They work early yesterday. (not leave)
     

Have to

Se usa "have to" para mostrar que una persona está obligada a hacer algo, por lo general debido a una fuerza externa, "have to" también se puede usar para expresar opinión:
La forma negativa, "don't" / "doesn't" / "didn't have to", significa que uno no está obligado a hacer algo.

Forma

El presente simple de "have" + "to" + infinitivo (sin "to")
or
The past simple of 'have' + to + infinitive (without to)

Ejemplo

I
You
We
They
have to leave the house early to catch the bus.
care for the children.
He / She / It has to
I
You
We
They
don't have to leave the house early to catch the bus.
care for the children.
He / She / It doesn't have to

Do I
you
we
they
have to work on Saturday?
Does he / she / it attend the conference?

I
You
He / She / It
We
They
had to leave the house early to catch the bus.
care for the children.
I
You
He / She / It
We
They
didn't have to leave the house early to catch the bus.
care for the children.

Did I
you
he / she / it
we
they
have to work on Saturday?
attend the conference?

Práctica

Dar o pedir consejo usando el verbo entre paréntesis:

  • You to the internet to send an email. (connect)
     
  • Adrian every weekend unless he wants to. (not train)
     
  • you your passport at the border? (show)
     
  • Amy 30 hours a week last year. (teach)
     

Must

"Must" también se usa para hablar de obligación y se usa en reglas e instrucciones escritas: "Must" también se usa para hacer una recomendación firme:
La forma negativa, "mustn't" ("must not"), significa que usted está obligado a hacer algo o se le recomienda no hacer algo.

Forma

"must" o "mustn't" ("must not") + el infinitivo del verbo (sin "to")

Ejemplo

I
You
He / She / It
We
They
must
mustn't
report the theft to the police immediately.
forget to transfer the money.

Must I
you
he / she / it
we
they
go?

Si bien las preguntas con "must" son gramaticalmente correctas, hoy en día suele ser más habitual usar "have to" en las preguntas.

"Must" denotando obligación no se suele usar en el pasado:

Práctica

Dar o pedir consejo usando el verbo entre paréntesis:

  • You late for the train. (not be)
     
  • We their wedding anniversary. (celebrate)
     
  • You the application form in black ink. (complete)
     
  • He his dog chew the furniture. (not let)
     

Más práctica

Elija la respuesta correcta para completar la frase: a, b, c ó d.



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Video lessons - 4 lessons including English for emails and presentations
 
Video lessons - 10 additional video lessons including English for finance, strategy, M&A, job interviews
 
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Dictation - 5 business English exercises