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Present perfect


Introduction

We use the present perfect to describe the past when it affects the present, for example

Examples:

Form 1 - Present perfect positive

To form the present perfect positive, we use
"have" + past participle.

Subject "have" past participle
I
You
We
They
have
've

been
to India.
He / She / It has
's

Past participles

With regular verbs, we form the past participle by adding "–d", "–ed" or "–ied" at the end, for example:

regular verbs
infinitive   past participle  
receive received "-d" for regular verbs ending with "e"
work worked "-ed" for regular verbs ending with a consonant
study studied "-ied" for regular verbs ending with a consonant and "y"

The past participles of irregular verbs are different and must be learnt, for example:

irregular verbs
infinitive   past participle  
be been
do done
eat eaten
find found
go gone
grow grown
have had
make made
see seen

Practice

Complete the sentences with the present perfect positive form of the verb in brackets:
.
1)
I    that movie three times. (see)

 
2)
David and Sarah    every day for their exams. (study)

 
3)
Tom    breakfast for us. (make)

 
4)
Our company    in the last five years. (grow)

 

Form 2 - Present perfect negative

To form the present perfect negative, we use
"have not" + past participle.

Subject "have not" past participle
I
You
We
They
have not
haven't
've not

eaten
breakfast yet.
He / She / It has not
hasn't
's not

Examples:

Practice

Complete the sentences with the present perfect negative form of the verb in brackets:
.
1)
I    a holiday this year. (have)

 
2)
Sarah    to Italy before. (be)

 
3)
He    his homework yet. (do)

 
4)
We    Tom since last Friday. (see)

 

Form 3 - Present perfect question

To form the present perfect question, we use
"have" + subject + past participle.

"have" Subject past participle
Have I
you
we
they

seen
my purse?
Has he / she / it

Examples:

Practice

Complete the sentences with the present perfect question form of the verb in brackets:
.
1)
   you    Tom this week? (see)

 
2)
   Sarah    to the airport yet? (go)

 
3)
   Clara    dinner yet? (eat)

 
4)
Who    she    to the party? (invite)

 

Further practice

Complete the sentences with the correct answer from a, b, c or d:
.
1)
They ____ my letter yet.
 

 

2)
____ David ____ his car keys?
 

 

3)
You are late. Where ____ you ____?
 

 

4)
James ____ at the company for five years.
 

 

5)
I ____ Clare for a long time.
 

 

6)
David ____ a beard.
 

 

Further language point

We also use the present perfect positive form with "always" and "never".

Using "never" makes the meaning negative:

Subject   "have"   time period   past participle  
I
You
We
They
have always
never
lived in the city.
He
She
It
has


We also use the present perfect question form with "always" and "ever".

"have"   Subject   time period   past participle  
Have I
you
we
they
always
never
lived in the city.
Has he
she
it

Examples:

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